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Jobs Act: analisi e valutazione dell'ultima riforma del mercato del lavoro

ITALIAN ECONOMIC TRENDS AND LABOR MARKET REFORMS: A 50-YEARS OVERVIEW Matteo Deleidi, Walter Paternesi Meloni, wp Astril 2014
Abstract This paper aims to investigate the Italian economic development from 1960 to the present day, performing an analysis of meaningful economic trends and relating them to the implementation of major labor market reforms. For this purpose, we observe the dynamics of main macroeconomic variables related to growth, income distribution and employment. Especially, we focus on different theoretical approaches explaining labor productivity trend, and on Classical theory of distribution.
IL JOBS ACT TRA SURREALISMO E MISTIFICAZIONE: UNA LETTURA CRITICA, di Paolo Pini, Economia & Lavoro, 2015
Il Jobs Act è stato annunciato come una indispensabile riforma strutturale chiesta dall’Europa per rendere più flessibile il mercato del lavoro italiano e contrastare il dualismo tra lavoratori protetti e coloro che non hanno protezioni, garantendo a questi ultimi maggiori tutele di mercato. Intende anche avviare una “campagna di fiducia” per imprese e mercati e indurre una crescita della domanda di lavoro e quindi dell’occupazione, garantendo più flessibilità in entrata e in uscita. Si tratta della ennesima riforma del mercato del lavoro italiano, che dichiara però – a differenza di quelle passate – di voler estendere le tutele a tutti, trasferendo le protezioni dal posto di lavoro al mercato, estendendole agli esclusi con il sostegno del soggetto pubblico. Ma è vero tutto ciò oppure è solo un ennesimo annuncio? Ed è quello di cui abbiamo davvero bisogno? In questo lavoro si discutono le omissioni contenute nella legge delega approvata dal Parlamento e le contraddizioni presenti nella riforma annunciata. Essa appare in verità una riforma a costo zero, in tutta continuità con le precedenti riforme realizzate dagli anni Novanta. Nonostante gli annunci invitino a scommettere sull’effetto fiducia imprese e mercati, resi liberi dai vincoli posti dalle norme del lavoro, rimangono i problemi strutturali dell’economia italiana, stagnazione della produttività, e quelli di domanda aggregata e sua composizione, accentuati dallo stato di profonda depressione dell’eurozona. Il Jobs Act a ciò non fornisce risposte.
Labour market reforms in Italy: evaluating the effects of the Jobs Act, by Marta Fana, Dario Guarascio and Valeria Cirillo, WP, December 2015
Law 183 of 2014, evocatively named the ‘Jobs Act’, has determined a deep change in the Italian industrial relations. Bringing at completion a reform process begun in the 1990s, the Jobs Act has introduced a new contract type - ‘contratto a tutele crescenti’ - implying a substantial downsize of obligation for workers’ reinstatement in case of firms invalidly firing them. The new permanent contract is therefore deprived of the substantial requirements of an open-ended contract. The Law has also weakened the legal constraints for firms intending to monitor workers through electronic devices and introduced new incentives for firms using temporary contracts. This article frames the Jobs Act within the overall labour market reform process occurred in Italy since mid-nineties and provides a first evaluation of its impacts on the Italian labour market. Taking advantage of di↵erent data sources (administrative and labour force data) and concentrating the analysis over the period after the Jobs Act implementation, the investigation provides the following results: the expected boost in employment growth is not detected; an increase in the share of temporary contracts over the open-ended ones is observed; a raise of part-time contracts within the new permanent positions emerges. The analysis shows that the Jobs Act failed in achieving its main goals. We discuss the observed evidence evaluating the appropriateness of the Law 183/2014 in the present Italian economic context accounting, in particular, for the structural e↵ects of the recent crisis.
Hiring incentives and/or firing cost reduction? Evaluating the impact of the 2015 policies on the Italian labour market, by Paolo Sestito and Eliana Viviano, BdI, March 2016
In 2015 Italy adopted two different policies aimed at reducing labour market dualism and fostering employment: a generous permanent hiring subsidy and new regulations lowering firing costs and making them less uncertain. Using microdata for Veneto and exploiting some differences in the design of the policies, we evaluate the impact of each measure. Both contributed to double the monthly rate of conversion of fixed-term jobs into permanent positions. Moreover, around 40 per cent of new total gross hires with permanent job contracts occurred because of the incentives, whereas 5 per cent can be attributed to the new firing regulations . The new firing rules also made firms less reluctant to offer permanent job positions to yet untested workers. The possibility of benefitting from the incentives in case of a conversion also boosted temporary hiring, as it allowed firms to test for the quality of a job match.
La crisi e le riforme del mercato del lavoro in Italia: un’analisi regionale del Jobs Act, di Marta Fana, Dario Guarascio e Valeria Cirillo, Argomenti 2016
Il presente lavoro fornisce un’analisi della dinamica del mercato del lavoro italiano in seguito all’introduzione del Jobs Act guardando, in particolare, alla dimensione regionale. In linea con Fana et al. (2016), l’analisi mostra come, nel periodo successivo all’introduzione del Jobs Act, ad aumentare siano stati principalmente i lavori a termine ed i voucher. Inoltre, emerge come il lieve aumento di occupati a tempo indeterminato osservato nel 2015 è significativamente legato, da un lato, agli incentivi fiscali che hanno accompagnato l’introduzione del Jobs Act; dall’altro, alle trasformazioni – le stabilizzazioni – di contratti esistenti piuttosto che alla creazione di nuovo impiego. La dinamica dell’occupazione condotta a livello regionale si caratterizza per un rilevante grado di eterogeneità. Non sembrano emergere, tuttavia, specifici pattern regionali.
Labour market reforms in Italy: evaluating the effects of the Jobs Act, di Valeria Cirillo, Marta Fana, Dario Guarascio, Economia Politica, 2017
Authors: Valeria Cirillo, Marta Fana, Dario Guarascio Publication date: 2017/8/1 Journal: Economia Politica Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Pages: 211-232 Publisher: Springer International Publishing Description: This article analyses the “Jobs Act”—the last structural reform implemented in Italy—framing it within the labour market reform process starting in 1997. Taking advantage of different data sources (administrative and labour force data), the investigation provides the following results. First, monetary incentives seem to play a key role in explaining the dynamics of new (or transformed) contracts. Second, new open-ended contracts are mostly driven by transformation. Third, a relevant share of new open-ended positions is characterized by part-time contracts. Fourth, the increase in employment is concentrated among older workforce (over 50 years old). Finally, new permanent jobs increase in low-skilled and low-tech service sectors, while the opposite occurs in manufacturing (particularly in high-tech industries).
Labour market reforms in Italy: evaluating the effects of the Jobs Act, di Valeria Cirillo, Marta Fana, Dario Guarascio, Economia Politica, 2017
Abstract This article analyses the ‘‘Jobs Act’’—the last structural reform implemented in Italy—framing it within the labour market reform process starting in 1997. Taking advantage of different data sources (administrative and labour force data), the investigation provides the following results. First, monetary incentives seem to play a key role in explaining the dynamics of new (or transformed) contracts. Second, new open-ended contracts are mostly driven by transformation. Third, a relevant share of new open-ended positions is characterized by part-time contracts. Fourth, the increase in employment is concentrated among older workforce (over 50 years old). Finally, new permanent jobs increase in low-skilled and low-tech service sectors, while the opposite occurs in manufacturing (particularly in high-tech industries).
La crescita produce precariato: record nei primi 9 mesi del 2017
Osservatorio sul precariato dell'Inps. Dall’avvio del Jobs Act nel marzo 2015 la sostituzione del lavoro a tempo indeterminato con il lavoro precario a vita procede a passo di carica
La crescita è precaria: record del lavoro a termine - Roberto Ciccarelli, 08.12.2017
I paradossi della crescita senza occupazione fissa. Nel terzo trimestre del 2017 il Pil è cresciuto dell'1,7% sull'anno, mentre aumenta l'occupazione a termine: la spinta viene dagli over 50. La crescita non produce occupazione fissa in un mercato del lavoro che penalizza la «generazione di mezzo» tra i 35 e i 49 anni. Più del Jobs Act, hanno fatto le «riforme» Fornero e Poletti. La prima ha prolungato l'età pensionabile, la seconda ha moltiplicato il numero dei rinnovi dei contratti a termine. E la disoccupazione resta stabile Stiamo vivendo una crescita senza occupazione fissa. Possono essere spiegati in questo modo i dati comunicati ieri dall’Istat sul terzo trimestre dell’economia italiana nel 2017. Da un lato il Prodotto Interno Lordo (Pil) cresce in termini congiunturali dello 0,4% e dell’1,7% su base annua; dall’altro lato cresce l’occupazione dei dipendenti a termine di 79 mila unità, in un anno sono 303 mila. Una platea di lavoratori soprattutto precari. Tra luglio e settembre di questanno hanno registrato un record storico: +13,4% su anno In totale sono 2 milioni e 784 mila, il dato più alto dal 1992.
Rapporto sul mercato del lavoro 2017. Sintesi
Rapporto sul mercato del lavoro 2017.
Rapporto sul mercato del lavoro 2017. Nota stampa
https://www.eticaeconomia.it Crescita occupazionale, lavoro discontinuo e semioccupazione. La crisi del mercato del lavoro è finita o c’è un problema di misurazione?, di Leonello Tronti
Graded Security and Labor Market Mobility Clean Evidence from the Italian Jobs Act,Tito Boeri - Pietro Garibaldi, febbraio 2018, INPS
Weaker jobs, weaker innovation. Exploring the temporary employment-product innovation nexus, di Cetrulo, Cirillo, Guarascio, 2018 Febbraio
Nota trimestrale sulle tendenze dell’occupazione IV trimestre 2017, Istat marzo 2018
Effetto Jobs act: cosa dicono i dati, di Boeri-Garibaldi, marzo2018, Lavoce.info
Academic Careers and Fertility Decisions, di Maria De Paola, Roberto Nisticò, Vincenzo Scoppa (GEN 2021)
We investigate how academic promotions affect the propensity of women to have a child. We use administrative data on the universe of female assistant professors employed in Italian universities from 2001 to 2018. We estimate a model with individual fixed effects and find that promotion to associate professor increases the probability of having a child by 0.6 percentage points, which translates into an increase by 12.5% of the mean. This result is robust to employing a Regression Discontinuity Design in which we exploit the eligibility requirements in terms of research productivity introduced since 2012 by the Italian National Scientific Qualification (NSQ) as an instrument for qualification (and therefore promotion) to associate professor. Our finding provides important policy implications in that reducing uncertainty on career prospects may lead to an increase in fertility.
Heterogeneous Paths to Stability, di Edoardo Di Porto, Cristina Tealdi (APRILE 2022)
We investigate how the flexibility of temporary contracts affects the probability of young workers to be upgraded into permanent employment. Theoretically, we explore the workers’ career development in response to the change in flexibility within a search and matching model; empirically, we exploit an Italian labour market reform which increased flexibility in a difference in differences framework. We find that new entrants in the labour market who have been affected by the reform experienced a decrease in the conversion rate of approximately 12.5 percentage points in the first months after the reform, and of 5.1 percentage points over a year, compared to unaffected peers. This effect is particularly strong among women and low-educated workers employed in low productive firms in the Center/South of Italy. Worryingly, the lower conversion rate leads to a 25% wage penalty even two years down the workers’ career paths.
Labor Market Reforms and Earnings Dynamics: the Italian Case, By Eran B. Hoffmann, Davide Malacrino and Luigi Pistaferri (MAY 2021)
This paper summarizes statistics on the key aspects of the distribution of earnings levels and earnings changes using administrative (social security) data from Italy between 1985 and 2016. During the time covered by our data, earnings inequality and earnings volatility increased, while earnings mobility did not change significantly. We connect these trends with some salient facts about the Italian labor market, in particular the labor market reforms of the 1990s and 2000s which induced a substantial rise in fixedterm and part-time employment. The rise in parttime work explains much of the rise in earnings inequality, while the rise in fixed-term contracts explains much of the rise in volatility. Both these trends affect the earnings distribution through hours worked: part-time jobs reduce hours worked within a week, while fixed-term contracts reduce the number of weeks worked during the year as well as increase their volatility. We find weak evidence that fixed-term contracts represent a "stepping-stone" to permanent employment. Finally, we offer suggestive evidence that the labor market reforms contributed to the slowdown in labor productivity in Italy by delaying human capital accumulation (in the form of general and firm-specific experience) of recent cohorts.
The effects of partial employment protection reforms: evidence from Italy, by Diego Daruich, Sabrina Di Addario and Raffaele Saggio (NOV 2022)
We combine matched employer-employee data with firms’ financial records to study a 2001 Italian reform that lifted constraints on the employment of temporary contract workers while maintaining rigid employment protection regulations for employees hired under permanent contracts. Exploiting the staggered implementation of the reform across different collective bargaining agreements, we find that this policy change led to an increase in the share of temporary contracts but failed to raise employment. The reform had both winners and losers. Firms are the main winners as the reform was successful in decreasing labor costs, leading to higher profits. By contrast, young workers are the main losers since their earnings were substantially depressed following the policy change. Rent-sharing estimates show that temporary workers receive only two-thirds of the rents shared by firms with permanent workers, helping explain most of the labor costs and earnings reductions caused by the reform.