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HYGIENE AND MEDICAL STATISTICS

Academic year and teacher
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Versione italiana
Academic year
2022/2023
Teacher
MARIA ELENA FLACCO
Credits
5
Didactic period
Primo Semestre

Training objectives

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Modulo: 010216/1 - STATISTICA MEDICA
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HYGIENE
Knowledge and application of the epidemiological methodology in order to analyse, understand and assess the health problems and health care both in individuals and/or in communities.
Understand the principles, the rules, and the management aimed to provide public health care in Italy.
Identification and analysis of the risk factors influencing human health. Understand and explain the methodologies and interventions for the promotion and protection of health at the individual and community.
Know the principles and definitions relating to the classification of different microorganisms and infectious agents and host-pathogen interaction.
Know the principles and issues relating to the prevention of diseases and apply measures for risk prevention

MEDICAL STATISTICS
Enhance the ability to read and interpret scientific papers, to identify the most common biases, and the basic concepts of multivariate analyses.
Know the main sources of data, and the methodology to create a table reporting the results of a scientific study.
Acquire the ability to interpret the main methods of multivariate analysis for the identification of risk / protective factors, taking into account stratification (for example by sex / gender) and standardization techniques.

Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will:
- Know the principles and issues of disease prevention, and apply the risk prevention measures
- Know the techniques and the main limitations of the intermediate epidemiological methodologies and of the basic methodologies of biostatistics.
- Interpret the results of the main multivariate, stratified and standardized statistical analyses.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to:
- Set up a basic intervention for health promotion and protection at both individual- and community-level
- Critically read the results of a scientific study of intermediate difficulty, and create a table of results according to the international scientific standards.
- Set the basis to perform a clinical study.

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Modulo: 011229 - IGIENE GENERALE E APPLICATA
------------------------------------------------------------
HYGIENE
Knowledge and application of the epidemiological methodology in order to analyse, understand and assess the health problems and health care both in individuals and/or in communities.
Understand the principles, the rules, and the management aimed to provide public health care in Italy.
Identification and analysis of the risk factors influencing human health. Understand and explain the methodologies and interventions for the promotion and protection of health at the individual and community.
Know the principles and definitions relating to the classification of different microorganisms and infectious agents and host-pathogen interaction.
Know the principles and issues relating to the prevention of diseases and apply measures for risk prevention

MEDICAL STATISTICS
Enhance the ability to read and interpret scientific papers, to identify the most common biases, and the basic concepts of multivariate analyses.
Know the main sources of data, and the methodology to create a table reporting the results of a scientific study.
Acquire the ability to interpret the main methods of multivariate analysis for the identification of risk / protective factors, taking into account stratification (for example by sex / gender) and standardization techniques.

Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will:
- Know the principles and issues of disease prevention, and apply the risk prevention measures
- Know the techniques and the main limitations of the intermediate epidemiological methodologies and of the basic methodologies of biostatistics.
- Interpret the results of the main multivariate, stratified and standardized statistical analyses.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to:
- Set up a basic intervention for health promotion and protection at both individual- and community-level
- Critically read the results of a scientific study of intermediate difficulty, and create a table of results according to the international scientific standards.
- Set the basis to perform a clinical study.

Prerequisites

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Modulo: 010216/1 - STATISTICA MEDICA
------------------------------------------------------------
HYGIENE
Knowledge supplied from the biological and medical disciplines forecasted in the preceding years of degree course
MEDICAL STATISTICS
Basic knowledge of mathematics and informatics.


------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 011229 - IGIENE GENERALE E APPLICATA
------------------------------------------------------------
HYGIENE
Knowledge supplied from the biological and medical disciplines forecasted in the preceding years of degree course
MEDICAL STATISTICS
Basic knowledge of mathematics and informatics.

Course programme

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Modulo: 010216/1 - STATISTICA MEDICA
------------------------------------------------------------
Bases of Epidemiology - Methods and aims
Characteristics of observational epidemiological studies (ecological, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies) and experimental (randomized clinical trials)
Concept of bias and confounding
Epidemiological measures: Absolute risk and relative risk - importance for clinical and public health choices
Interpretation of some of the main statistical measures for the purposes of clinical and public health choices
The three steps of epidemiology
Statistical inference, confidence limits - in-depth analysis for the purposes of clinical and public health choices
Significance: statistics versus clinical
The scientific evidence and importance of the epidemiological method for research and health organization
The tools of Evidence Based Medicine: reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyzes, guidelines and diagnostic-therapeutic protocols
Concepts of Health Technology Assessment
Screenings
The interpretation of the results of a clinical study

Bases of Applied Hygiene
Causes of disease and risk factors
Epidemiology and general prophylaxis of communicable and non-communicable diseases
Health promotion and disease prevention
Prevention, system and individual strategies, lifestyles: importance and complexity
Active and passive prophylaxis, immunoprophylaxis, vaccines
Disinfection and sterilization

The health system: evolution of the health organization in Italy.
Corporatization in healthcare, and healthcare offering structures.
Health management: definition and functions.
The structuring of hospital care: SDO and DRG system.
The case-mix classification systems, the healthcare financing system and the potential impact on equity of care.
The systems of evaluation of health services.

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 011229 - IGIENE GENERALE E APPLICATA
------------------------------------------------------------
Bases of Epidemiology - Methods and aims
Characteristics of observational epidemiological studies (ecological, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies) and experimental (randomized clinical trials)
Concept of bias and confounding
Epidemiological measures: Absolute risk and relative risk - importance for clinical and public health choices
Interpretation of some of the main statistical measures for the purposes of clinical and public health choices
The three steps of epidemiology
Statistical inference, confidence limits - in-depth analysis for the purposes of clinical and public health choices
Significance: statistics versus clinical
The scientific evidence and importance of the epidemiological method for research and health organization
The tools of Evidence Based Medicine: reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyzes, guidelines and diagnostic-therapeutic protocols
Concepts of Health Technology Assessment
Screenings
The interpretation of the results of a clinical study

Bases of Applied Hygiene
Causes of disease and risk factors
Epidemiology and general prophylaxis of communicable and non-communicable diseases
Health promotion and disease prevention
Prevention, system and individual strategies, lifestyles: importance and complexity
Active and passive prophylaxis, immunoprophylaxis, vaccines
Disinfection and sterilization

The health system: evolution of the health organization in Italy.
Corporatization in healthcare, and healthcare offering structures.
Health management: definition and functions.
The structuring of hospital care: SDO and DRG system.
The case-mix classification systems, the healthcare financing system and the potential impact on equity of care.
The systems of evaluation of health services.

Didactic methods

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Modulo: 010216/1 - STATISTICA MEDICA
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Lectures and Practice sessions



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Modulo: 011229 - IGIENE GENERALE E APPLICATA
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Lectures and Practice sessions


Learning assessment procedures

Oral examination.

Reference texts

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Modulo: 010216/1 - STATISTICA MEDICA
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Manzoli L, Villari P, Boccia A. Epidemiologia e Management in Sanità: Elementi di Metodologia. Edi-Ermes, 2015.
Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice, Fourth Edition. Edited by Ichiro Kawachi et al.
Barbuti, Bellelli, Fara, Giammanco. Igiene, Monduzzi Editore, Bologna
Pontello M, Auxilia F (a cura di): Igiene, Medicina Preventiva e salute globale. Piccin, 2022

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 011229 - IGIENE GENERALE E APPLICATA
------------------------------------------------------------
Manzoli L, Villari P, Boccia A. Epidemiologia e Management in Sanità: Elementi di Metodologia. Edi-Ermes, 2015.
Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice, Fourth Edition. Edited by Ichiro Kawachi et al.
Barbuti, Bellelli, Fara, Giammanco. Igiene, Monduzzi Editore, Bologna
Pontello M, Auxilia F (a cura di): Igiene, Medicina Preventiva e salute globale. Piccin, 2022