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Academic year
Didactic period
Primo Semestre

Training objectives

knowledge of the main geophysical methods of investigation of the ground: gravimetry, magnetometry, reflection and refraction seismic, surface waves methods, seismic tomography geoelectric and geoelectromagnetic (low and high frequency: "GPR") methods. The acquired skills will allow to collect and interpret data autonomously for the physical-geometrical structure of the investigated subsoil and to formulate the geological model.


Knowledge of Mathematics, General Physics and of Geophysics of solid Earth.

Course programme

The course includes 48 hours of lectures and tutorials. It is divided into the theoretical basis of the main methods of investigation and exposition of the methods of processing and inversion of the data.

• Gravimetry (5 hours): definition of the Bouguer’s anomaly; survey gravimeters, data collection procedures and techniques of representation and processing of gravimetric maps; calculation of the gravimetric anomaly of bodies of any shape; examples;

• Magnetometry (5 hours): definition and structure of magnetic anomalies; magnetometers (proton and fluxgate), techniques of collection and representation of the data and processing magnetometric maps; simplified estimates of the depth of magnetized bodies; examples;

• refraction seismic (5 hours): definition of dromochrone of the arrival times; data interpretation for flat and gently rough horizons; the problem of the inverse and the hidden layer; examples;

• reflection seismic (10 hours): dromochrone arrival times; techniques for the acquisition of the data; static and dynamic correction of the tracks and the production of a seismic section, also migrated; vertical and horizontal resolution; examples;

• seismic tomography (2 hours): method and inversion of the data; resolution of the velocity model;

• surface waves (4 hours): Active (SASW, MASW) and seismic noise-based methods (Re.Mi., SPAC, ESAC): collection, analysis and data inversion with 1D model; the HVSR or Nakamura method; examples;

• geoelectric and induced polarization methods (6 hours): definition of apparent resistivity and chargeability; collection techniques and data representation in "tomographic"; Examples

• geo-electromagnetic methods (3 hours): the principle of low frequency (FDEM) and high frequency (GPR) electromagnetic methods; examples;

• the Fourier transform in Applied Geophysics (4 hours): the problems of the convolution and aliasing of sampled data; examples;

• data inversion theory (4 hours): linear and linearized inversion; the ill-conditioned problem and Tikhonov regularization; hint to Occam’s approach to inversion.

Didactic methods

In room lectures and tutorials with examples of geophysical surveys

Learning assessment procedures

oral examination at the end of the course: exposure of at least 3 topics selected by the teacher is requires. Acquired skill, completeness of exposure and propriety of language are assessed.

Reference texts

G. Santarato, N. Abu Zeid, S. Bignardi. Lezioni di Geofisica Applicata (Libreria Universitaria Editrice, Padova, 2015).