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Academic year
Didactic period
Primo Semestre

Training objectives

The course of Pediatrics consists of three modules: “Pediatrics “Developmental Psychology” and “Child Neurology and Psychiatry”
The PEDIATRIC module aims to offer a general vision of general and specialized Pediatrics. Furthermore, the module aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledge about the most important and frequent pediatric disorders from neonatal age to adolescence, the main strategies for prevention of diseases and to promote health and development in children.
The DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY module aims to present, through a suitable historical background, recent models which try to describe and explain human psychological development; to transmit the basic knowledge necessary to understand a psychological analysis of development; to discuss methodological problems concerning the study of development and to highlight the impact of advances in sciences of human development on modern pediatrics.
The CHILD NEUROLOGY AND PSICHYATRY module aims to offer the basics for the evaluation of the normal and abnormal child development, the main pre-perinatal risk factors for abnormal outcome and the possible genetic background. Furthermore, the module aims to promote knowledge about the most important neurological and psychiatric diseases of childhood.
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will:
- know the instruments to evaluate physical, motor, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development and the normal developmental variability.
- know infantile nutrition, the physiology of post-natal adaptation and the main neonatal diseases
- know the main acute and chronic pediatric disorders (genetic, infective, metabolic, immune mediated, neoplastic, neurological and psychiatric)
-understand the basics of treatments in pediatric age
- understand the concept of neonatal behavioral states
- know the methods for evaluation of neonatal pain and the neurobehavioral scales
Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to:

- Use growth and development scales and to appreciate the individual variability
- Evaluate the appropriateness of prescription of infantile nutrition
- Evaluate post-natal adaptation,
- Recognize the main neonatal disorders
- Assess the adherence to the vaccination schedule
- Asses psychomotor development and know the red flags for abnormal development
- To recognize the most important acute and chronic, genetic and acquired pediatric disorders
- How to do lumbar puncture and blood sample in children.


Basic knowledge of physics, biostatistics, biochemistry,
Physiology, anatomy microbiology, general pathology, genetics and pharmacology modules
Notions of internal medicine, gastroenterology, pneumology, hematology, neurology, cardiology, nephro-urology, endocrinology, immune-allergology and dermatology
Basic knowledge on central nervous system development, anatomy and physiology. Knowledge of the main neurological signs and symptoms
Having passed final exams of Internal Medicine II° and Surgery II°

Course programme

The lesson introduces the field of Pediatrics and gives guidelines for the growth and development of the well and ill child.
Perinatal epidemiology. Organization of perinatal care. Physical assessment and classification of the newborn infants. Transition and stabilization after birth. Asphyxia. Metabolic diseases in the neonatal period. Infections.
Nutrition is a cornerstone in the management of term- and, especially, pre-term infants because it helps to achieve better outcomes. The fundamental role of breast-feeding in the optimal growth and development of infants is stressed.
Phenotype and cytogenetics of the most frequent chromosomal diseases. Approach to prenatal diagnosis.
Onthogenesis of Immune system. Congenital immunodeficiencies.
Priciples of Immuno-allergy. Food allergy. Asthma. Atopic eczema.
Embriology, etiology of congenital and acquired heart diseases; fetal circulation and adaptation of the circulation to extrauterine life; rhythm disorders in infants and children; metabolic disorders involving the cardiovascular system; cardiac pharmacology in neonate and children.
Diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy of the most frequent hematological and oncological diseases of childhood. The Hbpathies will be the object of special attention. The vasculitis.
Acute and Chronic diarrhoeal diseases. Dehydration. Lactose intolerance. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Coeliac disease.
Diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy of the most frequent respiratory diseases of childhood.
Cystic fibrosis.
Psychomotoric development; fever seizures; main childhood epilepsy; cerebral palsy; mental retardation and autism; CNS infections.
Clinical presentation of the prominent clinical features in GH deficiency. Clinical presentation of the prominent clinical features of hypothyroidism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
Clinical presentation of the prominent clinical features of the most common inherited metabolic diseases.
Diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy of main infective disorders.
Elements of pediatric pharmacotherapy.
The course is concerned with the scientific understanding of age-related psychological changes throughout the lifespan. The aim of Developmental Psychology is in fact to discover, describe and explain how development occurs from its earliest origins into childhood, adulthood and old age. To understand human development requires considering the diverse effects of nature (biology, neurophysiology) and culture (family, society) on the developing child. The major theorists are introduced to provide a background to contemporary research and to the modern synthesis of nature and nurture (Dynamic Systems Approaches).
Psychomotor development. Febrile seizures. Main childhood epilepsy. Cerebral palsy. Mental retardation and autism. CNS infections.

Didactic methods

The three modules of the course of Pediatrics “Pediatrics “Developmental Psychology” and “Child Neurology and Psychiatry” provide frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service provides insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons by means of presentation of clinical cases using a problem solving method, didactic material on topics of the program not covered by frontal lectures and eventual topics from recent research advancements.

Learning assessment procedures

The learning verification will be carried out by a written exam, lasting 60 minutes, without the use of notes or books or personal multimedia support, in the presence of the teachers. The test will be formulated with 62 multiple-choice questions (5 multiple-choice) relating to all the educational goals, parameterized for the CFUs. No penalty for wrong answers or not given.
The minimum score of 18 out of 30 will be required to pass the exam and will be obtained by those answering correctly to 36/62 questions. The maximum grade, equal to 30 cum laude, is obtained by those who, answer correctly to 61/62 questions

Reference texts

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 21st Ed, Saunders 2019
Bona-Miniero, Pediatria Pratica, Ed Minerva Medica 2013
F. Zappulla, Pediatria Generale e Specialistica, Ed. Esculapio, ediz.2015
Sheridan, M. D., Dalla nascita ai cinque anni: le tappe fondamentali dello sviluppo, Raffaello Cortina Editore (2009)
Weiner & Levitt's Pediatric Neurology Edition: 4th Ed. Publication Year: 2003 Authors/Editor: Cohen, Michael E.; Duffner, Patricia K. Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) ISBN: 978-0-78-172931-4
Mini DSM-5 American Psychiatric Association Cortina Raffaello Editore 2014