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CLINICAL METHODOLOGY II

Academic year and teacher
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Versione italiana
Academic year
2022/2023
Teacher
CARLO CERVELLATI
Credits
14
Didactic period
Secondo Semestre

Training objectives

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 005987 - CHIRURGIA GENERALE
------------------------------------------------------------
The integrated course of Clinical Methodology II includes the modules of ‘Surgery’, ‘Clinical Biochemistry’ and ‘Pathology’. The course aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledge and useful tools to prepare the student for a correct approach with the patient by interpreting the clinical data with attention to specific sex / gender factors, getting them used to a clinical reasoning that includes the notions of pathophysiology and the pathological data. The module of SURGERY aims to give to the student knowledge on how to investigate and evaluate clinical signs and symptoms of diseases, interpreting them from the physiopathological point of view, how to properly collect the medical history and to approach the physical examination for diseases of surgical interest. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY aims to give to the student the capacity of using and translating the information and data provided by Laboratory Medicine in clinical practice, i.e. screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. The PATHOLOGY module aims to provide knowledge on the main methodologies used in pathology diagnostics to be able to understand and correctly use the pathological data for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of diseases, furthermore it provides the systematic treatment of the pathological basis of diseases of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands.

Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will:
- know how to interpret information obtained through pathological history and physical
examination;
- recognize the clinical manifestations of vascular and abdominal diseases;
- know the principles and purposes of the main investigation methodologies used in Pathology;
- know how to integrate the traditional morphological pathology with immunohistochemistry and
molecular biology in order to reach a correct diagnosis;
- know the basic concepts about morphological and biopathological characteristics related to the main pathological processes of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands.
- be able to interpret and apply in clinical practice the data generated by clinical biochemistry labs, regarding renal and hepatic functionality, electrolytes, markers of inflammation, markers of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
- be able to use the quantitative information present in a laboratory analysis report in a clinically useful ‘tool’

Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to:
- collect the medical history of the patient and perform the physical examination;
- understand and correctly employ the main diagnostic exams;
- know how to use the pathological data on morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology for an appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approach to pathology of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands



------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 015423/2 - BIOCHIMICA CLINICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE CLINICA
------------------------------------------------------------
The integrated course of Clinical Methodology II includes the modules of ‘Surgery’, ‘Clinical Biochemistry’ and ‘Pathology’. The course aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledge and useful tools to prepare the student for a correct approach with the patient by interpreting the clinical data with attention to specific sex / gender factors, getting them used to a clinical reasoning that includes the notions of pathophysiology and the pathological data. The module of SURGERY aims to give to the student knowledge on how to investigate and evaluate clinical signs and symptoms of diseases, interpreting them from the physiopathological point of view, how to properly collect the medical history and to approach the physical examination for diseases of surgical interest. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY aims to give to the student the capacity of using and translating the information and data provided by Laboratory Medicine in clinical practice, i.e. screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. The PATHOLOGY module aims to provide knowledge on the main methodologies used in pathology diagnostics to be able to understand and correctly use the pathological data for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of diseases, furthermore it provides the systematic treatment of the pathological basis of diseases of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands.

Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will:
- know how to interpret information obtained through pathological history and physical
examination;
- recognize the clinical manifestations of vascular and abdominal diseases;
- know the principles and purposes of the main investigation methodologies used in Pathology;
- know how to integrate the traditional morphological pathology with immunohistochemistry and
molecular biology in order to reach a correct diagnosis;
- know the basic concepts about morphological and biopathological characteristics related to the main pathological processes of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands.
- be able to interpret and apply in clinical practice the data generated by clinical biochemistry labs, regarding renal and hepatic functionality, electrolytes, markers of inflammation, markers of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
- be able to use the quantitative information present in a laboratory analysis report in a clinically useful ‘tool’

Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to:
- collect the medical history of the patient and perform the physical examination;
- understand and correctly employ the main diagnostic exams;
- know how to use the pathological data on morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology for an appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approach to pathology of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands



------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47775 - ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA
------------------------------------------------------------
The integrated course of Clinical Methodology II includes the modules of ‘Surgery’, ‘Clinical Biochemistry’ and ‘Pathology’. The course aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledge and useful tools to prepare the student for a correct approach with the patient by interpreting the clinical data with attention to specific sex / gender factors, getting them used to a clinical reasoning that includes the notions of pathophysiology and the pathological data. The module of SURGERY aims to give to the student knowledge on how to investigate and evaluate clinical signs and symptoms of diseases, interpreting them from the physiopathological point of view, how to properly collect the medical history and to approach the physical examination for diseases of surgical interest. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY aims to give to the student the capacity of using and translating the information and data provided by Laboratory Medicine in clinical practice, i.e. screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. The PATHOLOGY module aims to provide knowledge on the main methodologies used in pathology diagnostics to be able to understand and correctly use the pathological data for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of diseases, furthermore it provides the systematic treatment of the pathological basis of diseases of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands.

Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will:
- know how to interpret information obtained through pathological history and physical
examination;
- recognize the clinical manifestations of vascular and abdominal diseases;
- know the principles and purposes of the main investigation methodologies used in Pathology;
- know how to integrate the traditional morphological pathology with immunohistochemistry and
molecular biology in order to reach a correct diagnosis;
- know the basic concepts about morphological and biopathological characteristics related to the main pathological processes of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands.
- be able to interpret and apply in clinical practice the data generated by clinical biochemistry labs, regarding renal and hepatic functionality, electrolytes, markers of inflammation, markers of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
- be able to use the quantitative information present in a laboratory analysis report in a clinically useful ‘tool’

Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to:
- collect the medical history of the patient and perform the physical examination;
- understand and correctly employ the main diagnostic exams;
- know how to use the pathological data on morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology for an appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approach to pathology of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract, of the skin and of the endocrine glands

Prerequisites

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 005987 - CHIRURGIA GENERALE
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY:
Adequate knowledge of anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the circulatory and gastroenteric systems.
PATHOLOGY:
Adequate knowledge of anatomy of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract , of the skin and of the endocrine system. Knowledge of general pathology, genetics and molecular biology.
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY:
Knowledge of chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, human physiology and anatomy


------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 015423/2 - BIOCHIMICA CLINICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE CLINICA
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY:
Adequate knowledge of anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the circulatory and gastroenteric systems.
PATHOLOGY:
Adequate knowledge of anatomy of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract , of the skin and of the endocrine system. Knowledge of general pathology, genetics and molecular biology.
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY:
Knowledge of chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, human physiology and anatomy


------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47775 - ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY:
Adequate knowledge of anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the circulatory and gastroenteric systems.
PATHOLOGY:
Adequate knowledge of anatomy of the breast, of the gastrointestinal tract , of the skin and of the endocrine system. Knowledge of general pathology, genetics and molecular biology.
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY:
Knowledge of chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, human physiology and anatomy

Course programme

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 005987 - CHIRURGIA GENERALE
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY
For each clinical picture the physiopathology is treated to understand the development of specific signs and symptoms. The physical examination maneuvers, laboratory tests and imaging diagnostics will be presented and discussed under the light of the pathophysiological picture. The student will be trained to a methodological reasoning of the sequence of laboratory and instrumental exams to be requested. Chronic obstructive peripheral arterial disease. Thrombosis and embolisms of the peripheral arteries. Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Clinical manifestations and CEAP classification. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Bladder gallstones and its sequelae. Mechanical jaundice. Acute pancreatitis. Intestinal perforations. Acute peritonitis. Septic shock concept. Digestive hemorrhages. Hypovolemic shock. Intestinal obstructions. Paralytic and mechanical ileus. Esophageal reflux and achalasia. Inguinal hernias and their complications. Pneumothorax.
Particular attention to possible specific sex/gender factors in an integrated diagnostic-therapeutic pathway.
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
- Plasma proteins: normal proteinaemia and quantitative/qualitative alterations, role of major plasma proteins, albumin and globulins, antibodies, monoclonal gammopathies, acute phase proteins, malnutrition.
- Water and electrolytes: control of water and electrolyte metabolism, states of dehydration, water intoxication. Sodium hypo- and hypernatremia. Potassium, hypo-and hyperkalemia, Hypo- and hyperchloremia
- Hypo- and hyper-calcemia, markers of bone turnover,
- Copper and iron: physiological role of Cu and Fe, diseases related to overload and deficiency (Wilson's disease, iron deficiency hemochromatosis), biomarkers of iron overload and deficiency .
- Clinical enzymology
- Disorders of lipid metabolism: plasma transport of lipids and lipoproteins; physiopathology of primary and secondary lipid disorders. Diagnosis of dyslipidemia in prevention of atherosclerotic disease.
- Metabolism of carbohydrates: diabetes mellitus, functions of endocrine pancreas and insulin deficiency and periphery resistance in type I and type II DM; alterations of blood glucose, glycosuria. Oral, intravenous and tolbutamide tolerance test. Glycated proteins.
- Markers of liver injury/disease, bilirubin metabolism and jaundice.
- Diseases of the kidney and urinary system. Laboratory test of renal function; Glomerulal and tubular diseases. Acute and chronic renal failure; urine testing, proteinuria and haematuria.

PATHOLOGY
General Pathology
Role of Pathology. Methods and Techniques in Pathology (cytodiagnostics, macroscopic and histological diagnostics, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry). Molecular methods and application of molecular techniques in lung carcinoma, malignant melanoma and cervical carcinoma.
Endocrine system: Pituitary adenomas. Thyroiditis. Goiter. Benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid. Adrenocortical tumors. Pheochromocytoma. MEN syndromes.
Breast: Benign lesions. Fibroepithelial tumors. In situ and invasive carcinoma. Nipple carcinoma.
Molecular classification of breast carcinoma. Prognostic and predictive factors. Nipple neoplasms. Gynecomastia. Male breast carcinoma.
Digestive system: Esophagus: esophagitis. Barrett esophagus. Esophageal tumors.
Stomach: gastritis. Peptic ulcer disease. Benign and malignant tumors.
Small intestines: celiac disese. Neoplasms.
Colon-rectum: Crohn's disease. Ulcerative colitis. Colitis. Polyps and polyposis
Colorectal carcinoma: epidemiology, adenoma-carcinoma sequence an different pathways. Grading and staging. Predictive and prognostic factors. Molecular analysis in colorectal carcinoma and in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Skin: non melanocytic lesions: actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma.
Merkel cell carcinoma. Melanocytic lesions: nevi and melanomas.
Cutaneous lymphomas.



------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 015423/2 - BIOCHIMICA CLINICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE CLINICA
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY
For each clinical picture the physiopathology is treated to understand the development of specific signs and symptoms. The physical examination maneuvers, laboratory tests and imaging diagnostics will be presented and discussed under the light of the pathophysiological picture. The student will be trained to a methodological reasoning of the sequence of laboratory and instrumental exams to be requested. Chronic obstructive peripheral arterial disease. Thrombosis and embolisms of the peripheral arteries. Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Clinical manifestations and CEAP classification. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Bladder gallstones and its sequelae. Mechanical jaundice. Acute pancreatitis. Intestinal perforations. Acute peritonitis. Septic shock concept. Digestive hemorrhages. Hypovolemic shock. Intestinal obstructions. Paralytic and mechanical ileus. Esophageal reflux and achalasia. Inguinal hernias and their complications. Pneumothorax.
Particular attention to possible specific sex/gender factors in an integrated diagnostic-therapeutic pathway.
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
- Plasma proteins: normal proteinaemia and quantitative/qualitative alterations, role of major plasma proteins, albumin and globulins, antibodies, monoclonal gammopathies, acute phase proteins, malnutrition.
- Water and electrolytes: control of water and electrolyte metabolism, states of dehydration, water intoxication. Sodium hypo- and hypernatremia. Potassium, hypo-and hyperkalemia, Hypo- and hyperchloremia
- Hypo- and hyper-calcemia, markers of bone turnover,
- Copper and iron: physiological role of Cu and Fe, diseases related to overload and deficiency (Wilson's disease, iron deficiency hemochromatosis), biomarkers of iron overload and deficiency .
- Clinical enzymology
- Disorders of lipid metabolism: plasma transport of lipids and lipoproteins; physiopathology of primary and secondary lipid disorders. Diagnosis of dyslipidemia in prevention of atherosclerotic disease.
- Metabolism of carbohydrates: diabetes mellitus, functions of endocrine pancreas and insulin deficiency and periphery resistance in type I and type II DM; alterations of blood glucose, glycosuria. Oral, intravenous and tolbutamide tolerance test. Glycated proteins.
- Markers of liver injury/disease, bilirubin metabolism and jaundice.
- Diseases of the kidney and urinary system. Laboratory test of renal function; Glomerulal and tubular diseases. Acute and chronic renal failure; urine testing, proteinuria and haematuria.

PATHOLOGY
General Pathology
Role of Pathology. Methods and Techniques in Pathology (cytodiagnostics, macroscopic and histological diagnostics, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry). Molecular methods and application of molecular techniques in lung carcinoma, malignant melanoma and cervical carcinoma.
Endocrine system: Pituitary adenomas. Thyroiditis. Goiter. Benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid. Adrenocortical tumors. Pheochromocytoma. MEN syndromes.
Breast: Benign lesions. Fibroepithelial tumors. In situ and invasive carcinoma. Nipple carcinoma.
Molecular classification of breast carcinoma. Prognostic and predictive factors. Nipple neoplasms. Gynecomastia. Male breast carcinoma.
Digestive system: Esophagus: esophagitis. Barrett esophagus. Esophageal tumors.
Stomach: gastritis. Peptic ulcer disease. Benign and malignant tumors.
Small intestines: celiac disese. Neoplasms.
Colon-rectum: Crohn's disease. Ulcerative colitis. Colitis. Polyps and polyposis
Colorectal carcinoma: epidemiology, adenoma-carcinoma sequence an different pathways. Grading and staging. Predictive and prognostic factors. Molecular analysis in colorectal carcinoma and in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Skin: non melanocytic lesions: actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma.
Merkel cell carcinoma. Melanocytic lesions: nevi and melanomas.
Cutaneous lymphomas.



------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47775 - ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY
For each clinical picture the physiopathology is treated to understand the development of specific signs and symptoms. The physical examination maneuvers, laboratory tests and imaging diagnostics will be presented and discussed under the light of the pathophysiological picture. The student will be trained to a methodological reasoning of the sequence of laboratory and instrumental exams to be requested. Chronic obstructive peripheral arterial disease. Thrombosis and embolisms of the peripheral arteries. Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Clinical manifestations and CEAP classification. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Bladder gallstones and its sequelae. Mechanical jaundice. Acute pancreatitis. Intestinal perforations. Acute peritonitis. Septic shock concept. Digestive hemorrhages. Hypovolemic shock. Intestinal obstructions. Paralytic and mechanical ileus. Esophageal reflux and achalasia. Inguinal hernias and their complications. Pneumothorax.
Particular attention to possible specific sex/gender factors in an integrated diagnostic-therapeutic pathway.
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
- Plasma proteins: normal proteinaemia and quantitative/qualitative alterations, role of major plasma proteins, albumin and globulins, antibodies, monoclonal gammopathies, acute phase proteins, malnutrition.
- Water and electrolytes: control of water and electrolyte metabolism, states of dehydration, water intoxication. Sodium hypo- and hypernatremia. Potassium, hypo-and hyperkalemia, Hypo- and hyperchloremia
- Hypo- and hyper-calcemia, markers of bone turnover,
- Copper and iron: physiological role of Cu and Fe, diseases related to overload and deficiency (Wilson's disease, iron deficiency hemochromatosis), biomarkers of iron overload and deficiency .
- Clinical enzymology
- Disorders of lipid metabolism: plasma transport of lipids and lipoproteins; physiopathology of primary and secondary lipid disorders. Diagnosis of dyslipidemia in prevention of atherosclerotic disease.
- Metabolism of carbohydrates: diabetes mellitus, functions of endocrine pancreas and insulin deficiency and periphery resistance in type I and type II DM; alterations of blood glucose, glycosuria. Oral, intravenous and tolbutamide tolerance test. Glycated proteins.
- Markers of liver injury/disease, bilirubin metabolism and jaundice.
- Diseases of the kidney and urinary system. Laboratory test of renal function; Glomerulal and tubular diseases. Acute and chronic renal failure; urine testing, proteinuria and haematuria.

PATHOLOGY
General Pathology
Role of Pathology. Methods and Techniques in Pathology (cytodiagnostics, macroscopic and histological diagnostics, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry). Molecular methods and application of molecular techniques in lung carcinoma, malignant melanoma and cervical carcinoma.
Endocrine system: Pituitary adenomas. Thyroiditis. Goiter. Benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid. Adrenocortical tumors. Pheochromocytoma. MEN syndromes.
Breast: Benign lesions. Fibroepithelial tumors. In situ and invasive carcinoma. Nipple carcinoma.
Molecular classification of breast carcinoma. Prognostic and predictive factors. Nipple neoplasms. Gynecomastia. Male breast carcinoma.
Digestive system: Esophagus: esophagitis. Barrett esophagus. Esophageal tumors.
Stomach: gastritis. Peptic ulcer disease. Benign and malignant tumors.
Small intestines: celiac disese. Neoplasms.
Colon-rectum: Crohn's disease. Ulcerative colitis. Colitis. Polyps and polyposis
Colorectal carcinoma: epidemiology, adenoma-carcinoma sequence an different pathways. Grading and staging. Predictive and prognostic factors. Molecular analysis in colorectal carcinoma and in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Appendix: neoplasms.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors
Neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive System
Skin: non melanocytic lesions: actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma.
Merkel cell carcinoma. Melanocytic lesions: nevi and melanomas. Cutaneous lymphomas.
Classification of soft tissue tumors

Didactic methods

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 005987 - CHIRURGIA GENERALE
------------------------------------------------------------
The integrated course of Clinical Methodology II consists of the modules of ‘Surgery’, ‘Clinical Biochemistry’ and ‘Pathology’.
The module of SURGERY provides lectures, frequency of the surgical ward and clinics alongside staff, with focus on methodological and diagnostic aspects, and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons. The teaching activity is also integrated by practical activity with tutor which consists in physical visit and instrumental diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency and of arterial diseases. Simulation in a diagnostic lab with phantoms and/or normal subjects. Blood pressure. Measurement of ankle pressure with Doppler and Windsor index. Abdominal areas. Techniques of palpation and percussion of abdomen. Points of interest and surgical maneuvers in the abdomen. Evaluation of acute and chronic wounds
The module of CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
provides frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons and indicated by the teacher at the beginning of the course
The PATHOLOGY module provides frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons. The teaching activity is also integrated by practical activity which consists in attendance of Pathology grossing lab with observation of surgical specimens fixed in formalin, and attendance of the histopathology lab to acquire knowledge on diagnostic techniques in particular for intraoperative biopsies and for routine histology.


------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 015423/2 - BIOCHIMICA CLINICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE CLINICA
------------------------------------------------------------
The integrated course of Clinical Methodology II consists of the modules of ‘Surgery’, ‘Clinical Biochemistry’ and ‘Pathology’.
The module of SURGERY provides lectures, frequency of the surgical ward and clinics alongside staff, with focus on methodological and diagnostic aspects, and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons. The teaching activity is also integrated by practical activity with tutor which consists in physical visit and instrumental diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency and of arterial diseases. Simulation in a diagnostic lab with phantoms and/or normal subjects. Blood pressure. Measurement of ankle pressure with Doppler and Windsor index. Abdominal areas. Techniques of palpation and percussion of abdomen. Points of interest and surgical maneuvers in the abdomen. Evaluation of acute and chronic wounds
The module of CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
provides frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons and indicated by the teacher at the beginning of the course
The PATHOLOGY module provides frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons. The teaching activity is also integrated by practical activity which consists in attendance of Pathology grossing lab with observation of surgical specimens fixed in formalin, and attendance of the histopathology lab to acquire knowledge on diagnostic techniques in particular for intraoperative biopsies and for routine histology.


------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47775 - ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA
------------------------------------------------------------
The integrated course of Clinical Methodology II consists of the modules of ‘Surgery’, ‘Clinical Biochemistry’ and ‘Pathology’.
The module of SURGERY provides lectures, frequency of the surgical ward and clinics alongside staff, with focus on methodological and diagnostic aspects, and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons. The teaching activity is also integrated by practical activity with tutor which consists in physical visit and instrumental diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency and of arterial diseases. Simulation in a diagnostic lab with phantoms and/or normal subjects. Blood pressure. Measurement of ankle pressure with Doppler and Windsor index. Abdominal areas. Techniques of palpation and percussion of abdomen. Points of interest and surgical maneuvers in the abdomen. Evaluation of acute and chronic wounds
The module of CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
provides frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons and indicated by the teacher at the beginning of the course
The PATHOLOGY module provides frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons. The teaching activity is also integrated by practical activity which consists in attendance of Pathology grossing lab with observation of surgical specimens fixed in formalin, and attendance of the histopathology lab to acquire knowledge on diagnostic techniques in particular for intraoperative biopsies and for routine histology.

Learning assessment procedures

SURGERY
The assessment of the learning will be carried out by a written exam with multiple choice questions. In itinere tests are possible at the end of the lecture cycles which will be taken into account for the final judgment. In both cases the ability to link the physiopathology of the clinical picture with the respective signs and symptoms and the appropriate use of medical terminology will be evaluated. The vote is expressed in thirtieths.
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
The assessment of the learning will be carried out by means of a written exam with 31 questions lasting 30 min. The questions will be formulated with multiple choice questions (5 options for each question, only one is correct) relating to all the training objectives defined above. There will be no penalty for incorrect or unsuccessful answers. Each correct answer will be evaluated 1.0 point. To pass the exam the student must answer correctly to at least 18 question. Honors will be awarded to those who pass the rounded score of 30. The final score (expressed in thirtieths) will be used for the calculation of the grade of the integrated course, by taking into account the weight in terms of CFU of the course module. The duration of the whole test will be increased for students with ‘Specific Learning Disorder’.
PATHOLOGY
Written multiple choice test: 30-40 questions, for each question there may be five possible answers, only one correct. Time: 25 -30 minutes. No penalty for wrong or missing answers.

THE FINAL VOTE IS A WEIGHTED AVERAGE OF THE MARKS OBTAINED IN EACH TEST; the final outcome will depend also on the practice sessions

Reference texts

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 005987 - CHIRURGIA GENERALE
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY
Dionigi, Chirurgia generale e specialistica, Masson
Oxford Textbook in Vascular Surgery, Oxford University Press 2016
Setacci C. Chirurgia Vascolare, Minerva Medica 2015
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Marshall, Bangert, Clinical Chemistry, Mosby
Antonozzi I, Gulletta E. Medicina di Laboratorio, Logica & Patologia Clinica, Piccin Ed
PATHOLOGY
Maria Rosaria Cardillo, Nozioni di tecniche diagnostiche di Anatomia Patologica, Antonio Delfino Editore
Rubin, Anatomia patologica e Patologia Generale, Piccin Editore
Robbins e Cotran, Le basi patologiche delle malattie, Elsevier Editore



------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 015423/2 - BIOCHIMICA CLINICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE CLINICA
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY
Dionigi, Chirurgia generale e specialistica, Masson
Oxford Textbook in Vascular Surgery, Oxford University Press 2016
Setacci C. Chirurgia Vascolare, Minerva Medica 2015
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Marshall, Bangert, Clinical Chemistry, Mosby
Antonozzi I, Gulletta E. Medicina di Laboratorio, Logica & Patologia Clinica, Piccin Ed
PATHOLOGY
Maria Rosaria Cardillo, Nozioni di tecniche diagnostiche di Anatomia Patologica, Antonio Delfino Editore
Rubin, Anatomia patologica e Patologia Generale, Piccin Editore
Robbins e Cotran, Le basi patologiche delle malattie, Elsevier Editore



------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47775 - ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA
------------------------------------------------------------
SURGERY
Dionigi, Chirurgia generale e specialistica, Masson
Oxford Textbook in Vascular Surgery, Oxford University Press 2016
Setacci C. Chirurgia Vascolare, Minerva Medica 2015
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Marshall, Bangert, Clinical Chemistry, Mosby
Antonozzi I, Gulletta E. Medicina di Laboratorio, Logica & Patologia Clinica, Piccin Ed
PATHOLOGY
Maria Rosaria Cardillo, Nozioni di tecniche diagnostiche di Anatomia Patologica, Antonio Delfino Editore
Rubin, Anatomia patologica e Patologia Generale, Piccin Editore
Robbins e Cotran, Le basi patologiche delle malattie, Elsevier Editore