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Academic year
Didactic period
Primo Semestre

Training objectives

The aim of the course is to enable students to understand living processes in the human organism, providing the basis for the scientific understanding of pathological changes.

In the discussion of some topics of the program, the principles of translational research will be presented.

As for the parameters of:
At the end of the course the student will:
- know the principles of the gastrointestinal system;
- know the principles of the endocrine system;
- know the principles of the nervous system;
- acquire the appropriate physiological terminology as well as knowledge about the essential parameters to evaluate the function of the systems.
At the end of the course the student will be able to:
- integrate knowledge about Biochemistry, Human Anatomy II and Physiology I in a more general framework about the function of the endocrine, gastrointestinal and nervous system;
- the student at the end of the course will have acquired the tools required to evaluate pathology starting from basic physiological processes.


Basic knowledge of the first principles of Physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Basic knowledge of human anatomy.
Passing exams of: Medical Physics and mathematics, Human anatomy II and propedeutical clinic, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Physiology I.

Course programme

The endocrine system: the pancreas and regulation of metabolism; the thyroid gland; the hypothalamic-hypophyseal system; the adenohypophysis; the control of calcium and phosphate balance; the adrenal glands; physiology of reproduction. The gastrointestinal system: motility and secretions of the gastrointestinal tract; digestion of the food and absorption; energy balance. The nervous system: neural basis of somatic sensation; pain and analgesia; vision and eye movements; hearing; taste and olfaction; motor systems of the brain; reflex and voluntary control of posture and movement; the vestibular system; motor functions of the cerebral cortex; cerebellum and basal ganglia; the hypothalamus and the limbic system, the autonomic nervous system; the cerebral cortex and aspects of higher functions of the nervous system.

Didactic methods

The course provides frontal lectures and online assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the deepening of some topics presented during the frontal lessons.

Learning assessment procedures

The learning assessment will be conducted by means of a 60-minute written examination. The examination consists of 90 questions relating to all the learning objectives, with true/false answers. Each correct answer will be weighted according to the difficulty of the question, missing answers will be awarded 0 points, and each wrong answer will lead to a penalty. The minimum mark for passing the examination, 18/30, is achieved by acquiring 54 points.
The written test may be supplemented by an oral examination lasting a maximum of thirty minutes, at the student's request or at the teacher's suggestion for assessments close to the threshold.

Reference texts

Berne & Levy, Fisiologia, VI ed. a cura di B.M. Koeppen e B.A. Stanton - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano
E.R. Kandel, J.H. Schwartz, T.M. Jessell, S.A Siegelbaum, A.J. Hudspeth, Principi di neuroscienze, IV ed. - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana