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APPLIED BIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY

Academic year and teacher
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Versione italiana
Academic year
2022/2023
Teacher
FERNANDA MARTINI
Credits
8
Didactic period
Primo Semestre

Training objectives

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Modulo: 015478/3 - PSICOLOGIA CLINICA
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The course includes the modules of Applied Biology and Clinical Psychology.

The Applied Biology module includes the General and Cellular Biology, General and Molecular Genetics didactic modules and it aims to give the student the knowledge of the basic notions of the biology and genetics, and then to highlight their applications in the medical fields.

Knowledge and understanding:
This teaching follows a training course that aims to lead the student to the understanding of:
1. the organization of living beings at the level of biological and cellular macromolecules;
2. the properties of biological macromolecules, and cells;
3. the reproductive and replicative capabilities of cells;
4. how the genetic information passes from DNA to RNA and proteins;
5. the structure, organization and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and organelles;
6. how the genetic information is inherited in generations and the modalities of gene expression in general, over time, and in different tissue districts, as a result of the mutations.
7. the sequence of biological events associated to mutations and leading to the altered phenotype.
8. distinguish the modalities of transmission of autosomal dominant, recessive, X-linked and mitochondrial genetic diseases, providing examples including the molecular genetics approach used to detect the main mutations of the genetic diseases presented.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
the course aims to provide the basis to:
1. distinguish the eukaryotic cell from the prokaryotic cell;
2. to master current cellular and molecular aspects related to scientific experiments in biology and genetics;
3. set-up a pedigree / family tree and the molecular analysis of the mutated DNA.

The main objective of Clinical Psychology module will be to lead the student to a preliminary consciousness of the scientific structure of doctor-patient (D-P) relationship, starting from elementary knowledge of the basic techniques of development of a trust-based relationship.





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Modulo: 26849 - BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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The course includes the modules of Applied Biology and Clinical Psychology.

The Applied Biology module includes the General and Cellular Biology, General and Molecular Genetics didactic modules and it aims to give the student the knowledge of the basic notions of the biology and genetics, and then to highlight their applications in the medical fields.

Knowledge and understanding:
This teaching follows a training course that aims to lead the student to the understanding of:
1. the organization of living beings at the level of biological and cellular macromolecules;
2. the properties of biological macromolecules, and cells;
3. the reproductive and replicative capabilities of cells;
4. how the genetic information passes from DNA to RNA and proteins;
5. the structure, organization and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and organelles;
6. how the genetic information is inherited in generations and the modalities of gene expression in general, over time, and in different tissue districts, as a result of the mutations.
7. the sequence of biological events associated to mutations and leading to the altered phenotype.
8. distinguish the modalities of transmission of autosomal dominant, recessive, X-linked and mitochondrial genetic diseases, providing examples including the molecular genetics approach used to detect the main mutations of the genetic diseases presented.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
the course aims to provide the basis to:
1. distinguish the eukaryotic cell from the prokaryotic cell;
2. to master current cellular and molecular aspects related to scientific experiments in biology and genetics;
3. set-up a pedigree / family tree and the molecular analysis of the mutated DNA.

The main objective of Clinical Psychology module will be to lead the student to a preliminary consciousness of the scientific structure of doctor-patient (D-P) relationship, starting from elementary knowledge of the basic techniques of development of a trust-based relationship.

Prerequisites

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Modulo: 015478/3 - PSICOLOGIA CLINICA
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Applied Biology module:
Knowledge of basic concepts of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics

Clinical Psychology module:
no specific characteristic is needed, useful personal skills in communication and relationship


------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 26849 - BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
------------------------------------------------------------
Applied Biology module:
Knowledge of basic concepts of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics

Clinical Psychology module:
no specific characteristic is needed, useful personal skills in communication and relationship

Course programme

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Modulo: 015478/3 - PSICOLOGIA CLINICA
------------------------------------------------------------

Module of APPLIED BIOLOGY (General and Cellular Biology, General and Molecular Genetics didactic modules):
Chemical composition of living matter. General characteristics of biological macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides). Composition and forms of DNA. DNA as a depositary of genetic information: experiments of Griffith, and Avery, MacLeod and McCarty, and Hershey and Chase. Genomic DNA organization in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and viruses. Chromatin. The nucleosome. The different classes of the eukaryotic DNA (highly repeated, averagely repeated, unique sequences). The different RNA classes (mRNA, rRNA, RNAt, miRNA). The prokaryotic cell: structure, organization and functions. The eukaryotic cell. Structure, organization and functions. Intracellular compartments. Cytoplasmic membrane. Receptors and mechanisms of transport. Cytoskeleton. Centrioles. The cytoplasmic organelles: structures and functions. Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes. Golgi apparatus and vesicular trafficking. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Lysosomes. Peroxisomes. Mitochondria. The nucleus. The nucleolus. The models of DNA replication: Meselson and Stahl experiment. DNA replication. Transcription. Translation. Mitogens and growth factors. Membrane receptors and signal transduction. The cell cycle. Mitosis. Meiosis. Comparison between mitosis and meiosis. Apoptosis. Cell transformation. The phenotype of the cancer cell. Chemical, physical and biological mutagens and carcinogens. Ames’s assay. Point mutations. The multiphase mechanism of oncogenesis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Recombinant DNA technologies and gene therapy. Mendel's experiments. dominant, recessive, co-dominance and dominance incomplete inheritance. Allele segregation. Independent assortment of alleles. Analysis of general inheritance mechanisms. Trees genealogy/pedigree. Monofactorial characters. Mendelian transmission of hereditary. dominant and recessive autosomal transmission of characters. Characters associated with the X chromosome. Test cross and back cross. Crossing-over and meiotic recombination. Inactivation of the X chromosome. Monofactorial diseases: autosomal dominant (examples: familial hypercholesterolemia, Huntington’s disease), autosomal recessive (examples: beta-thalassemias, cystic fibrosis), X-linked. (Examples: muscular dystrophies, hemophilia A). Genetic diseases with mitochondrial inheritance. The normal human karyotype. Chromosomal aberrations of number and structure. Cancer genetics.

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY module:
Introductory presentation of the hystorical, philosophical and scientific roots of Clinical psichology. The Seven Pillars of D-P Relationship: Kindness, Empathy, Sincerity, Competence, Efficacy, Trust and Therapeutic Alliance.




------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 26849 - BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
------------------------------------------------------------

Module of APPLIED BIOLOGY (General and Cellular Biology, General and Molecular Genetics didactic modules):
Chemical composition of living matter. General characteristics of biological macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides). Composition and forms of DNA. DNA as a depositary of genetic information: experiments of Griffith, and Avery, MacLeod and McCarty, and Hershey and Chase. Genomic DNA organization in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and viruses. Chromatin. The nucleosome. The different classes of the eukaryotic DNA (highly repeated, averagely repeated, unique sequences). The different RNA classes (mRNA, rRNA, RNAt, miRNA). The prokaryotic cell: structure, organization and functions. The eukaryotic cell. Structure, organization and functions. Intracellular compartments. Cytoplasmic membrane. Receptors and mechanisms of transport. Cytoskeleton. Centrioles. The cytoplasmic organelles: structures and functions. Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes. Golgi apparatus and vesicular trafficking. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Lysosomes. Peroxisomes. Mitochondria. The nucleus. The nucleolus. The models of DNA replication: Meselson and Stahl experiment. DNA replication. Transcription. Translation. Mitogens and growth factors. Membrane receptors and signal transduction. The cell cycle. Mitosis. Meiosis. Comparison between mitosis and meiosis. Apoptosis. Cell transformation. The phenotype of the cancer cell. Chemical, physical and biological mutagens and carcinogens. Ames’s assay. Point mutations. The multiphase mechanism of oncogenesis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Recombinant DNA technologies and gene therapy. Mendel's experiments. dominant, recessive, co-dominance and dominance incomplete inheritance. Allele segregation. Independent assortment of alleles. Analysis of general inheritance mechanisms. Trees genealogy/pedigree. Monofactorial characters. Mendelian transmission of hereditary. dominant and recessive autosomal transmission of characters. Characters associated with the X chromosome. Test cross and back cross. Crossing-over and meiotic recombination. Inactivation of the X chromosome. Monofactorial diseases: autosomal dominant (examples: familial hypercholesterolemia, Huntington’s disease), autosomal recessive (examples: beta-thalassemias, cystic fibrosis), X-linked. (Examples: muscular dystrophies, hemophilia A). Genetic diseases with mitochondrial inheritance. The normal human karyotype. Chromosomal aberrations of number and structure. Cancer genetics.

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY module:
Introductory presentation of the hystorical, philosophical and scientific roots of Clinical psichology. The Seven Pillars of D-P Relationship: Kindness, Empathy, Sincerity, Competence, Efficacy, Trust and Therapeutic Alliance.



Didactic methods

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Modulo: 015478/3 - PSICOLOGIA CLINICA
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The course provides teaching hours such as theoretical lectures, including teaching seminars, and on-line assisted teaching.

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Modulo: 26849 - BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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The course provides teaching hours such as theoretical lectures, including teaching seminars, and on-line assisted teaching.

Learning assessment procedures

For the Applied Biology module the learning assessment will be carried out by means of a written exam lasting about an hour, without the use of books or notes, in the presence of the teachers. The questions will be formulated with multiple choice questions (five options for each question), related to all the educational objectives as defined above. There will be no penalty for incorrect or not given answers. The questions will be prepared in order to verify the knowledge of applied biology acquired by the student in relation to all the teaching parts / modules of the program, with reference both to the basic notions of general and cellular biology and general and molecular genetics, and to their applications in medical field, also through the use of simple cases referring to comparisons between normal /wild and altered /mutated in human models treated in class.
To pass the exam it will be necessary to acquire a minimum score of 18 out of 30. The sufficiency threshold is exceeded with 36 correct answers. The score is given in thirtieths.
The maximum score, equal to thirty and praise, is provided for those who correctly answer all the questions; the minimum score, equal to 18, is foreseen for those who will correctly return to the 18/30 of the questions.

The learning level of the Clinical Psychology module will be evaluated with the applications of psychometric measures loading on Resilience and Empathy, in order to achieve a final certification of suitability as a final result of the Integrated Course.

Reference texts

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Modulo: 015478/3 - PSICOLOGIA CLINICA
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APPLIED BIOLOGY:
1. Autori Vari, a cura di De Leo, Ginelli, e Fasano. Biologia e Genetica, 4a Edizione. Editore EDISES, Napoli.
2. B. Alberts, et al. - Biologia molecolare della cellula, 6a Edizione - Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
3. D. Sadava et al. Elementi di Biologia e Genetica. 5a Edizione. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
4. Karp. Biologia Cellulare e Molecolare - Concetti ed esperimenti. 5a Edizione. Editore EDISES, Napoli.
5. J. D. Watson et al. Biologia molecolare del gene. 7a Edizione Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
6.B. A. Pearce – Genetica. 2a Edizione – Ed. Zanichelli. TEXTBOOKS SHOULD NOT BE OLDER THAN FIVE YEARS

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY module:
R.J.Comer – PSICOLOGIA CLINICA (2a Ed.), UTET.
(For consultation only)


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Modulo: 26849 - BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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APPLIED BIOLOGY:
1. Autori Vari, a cura di De Leo, Ginelli, e Fasano. Biologia e Genetica, 4a Edizione. Editore EDISES, Napoli.
2. B. Alberts, et al. - Biologia molecolare della cellula, 6a Edizione - Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
3. D. Sadava et al. Elementi di Biologia e Genetica. 5a Edizione. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
4. Karp. Biologia Cellulare e Molecolare - Concetti ed esperimenti. 5a Edizione. Editore EDISES, Napoli.
5. J. D. Watson et al. Biologia molecolare del gene. 7a Edizione Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
6.B. A. Pearce – Genetica. 2a Edizione – Ed. Zanichelli. TEXTBOOKS SHOULD NOT BE OLDER THAN FIVE YEARS

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY module:
R.J.Comer – PSICOLOGIA CLINICA (2a Ed.), UTET.
(For consultation only)