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Academic year
Didactic period
Secondo Semestre

Training objectives

The objectives of this course are to help to provide an initial source of information to the analytical, experimental and computational methods that are of importance in enviromental mineralogy. This course is aimed to provide the students with a solid
understanding of all the fundamental concepts and physical principles in modern inorganic chemistry necessary for the study of the more advanced or specialized courses that follow. The
topics discussed include coordination chemistry, organometallic
chemistry, main group chemistry and their applications in industry and our daily life. Standard spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy.


Basic concept learned in Physics (Ist and IInd courses) and in Mineralogy and Mineralogy Laboratory

Course programme

The course objective is to give a crystallographic and mathematical background of spectroscopic methods in the mineral sciences. In particular they will be processed:
a) An introduction to spectroscopic methods in the mineral sciences. Interaction of radiation with matter. Adsorption and emission spectroscopy (2 hours of frontal lectures).
b) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)Spectroscopy. Chemical shift and magic angle spinning (MAS-NMR).Instrumentations, applications and examples (8 hours of frontal lectures)
c) Vibrational Spectroscopy: IR and Raman. Stretching and bending. Instrumentations, applications and examples (8 hours of frontal lectures).
d) Introduction to X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy) and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure. Mössbauer spectroscopy (8 hours of frontal lectures).
e) Analysis of Mössbauer spectra, Isomer shift (d). Instrumentations, applications and examples (8 hours of frontal lectures).
f) Introduction to the Rietveld method. The use of an internal standard for semiquantitative analysis. “Reference Intensity Ratio” (RIR) method. The use of an internal standard for semiquantitative analysis. Quantitative Phase Analysis Using the Whole-Powder-Pattern Decomposition Method (6 hours of frontal lectures+ 8 hours of GSAS program pratical use aimed to the semi-quantitative analysis by the Rietveld method).
At the end of the course, the student knows how radiation can interact with molecules. He knows how rotational, vibrational, electronic and NMR spectra can be used to determine molecular properties and for analytical applications.

Didactic methods

The course is structured in 24 lessons (2 hours for lesson, total 48 hours).In detail :
• classroom lectures on the topics of the course (40 hours) ;
• theory of Rietveld analysis and practical application and use of software packages for Rietveld quantitative analysis. ( 8 hours) ;

Learning assessment procedures

Oral examination with the objective to verify the level of knowledge concerning theoretical and practical aspects covered during the course . In particular , the questions will focus on spectroscopic techniques studied. The course aims to develop the necessary skills to complete studies on material science, to apply this knowledge to different contexts, to understand the limits of one’s own knowledge. The oral test will also be formulated taking into account the ability to link between the needs required by industrial processes, the materials and analytical techniques to be used. It will be evaluated the ability of exposure and the adequacy of the technical language used

Reference texts

Appunti forniti dal docente (Teacher's handouts).
C. Giacovazzo et al. Fundamentals of crystallography. Iucr. 1992. Oxford Sci. Pubbl.