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Versione italiana
Academic year
Didactic period
Secondo Semestre

Training objectives

Training objectives
This course aims to provide knowledge on the basics of endocrine and metabolic mechanisms of adaptation to physical activity.
The main acquired knowledge will be:
•Endocrine and metabolic adaptation to physical activity
•Endocrine and metabolic consequences of physical activity
•Principles of exercise prescription to diabetic and obese subjects or with sarcopenia
•Effects of physical activity on energy expenditure, during and after exercise, in the short and in the long term, on thermogenesis, on body composition of the adult and of the aging subject, with normal or deranged glucose metabolism
•Overtraining syndromes
•Hormone doping consequences
The basic acquired abilities will be:
•To manage diabetic patients concerning physical activities, taking into account therapeutic and diet regimens
•To manage obese patients during physical activities, taking into account diet regimens
•To manage patients with sarcopenia during physical activities
•To manage training intensity and avoid overtraining
•To recognize and critically deal with endocrine doping


The following concepts are mandatory: background knowledge in anatomy, biology, physiology and physiopathology of the endocrine system and background knowledge in biochemistry and clinical biochemistry

Course programme

Endocrine responses Endocrine system organization
Response mechanisms to external stimuli. Central nervous system – endocrine system integration . Adaptation mechanisms
Endocrine axes responses to exercise (corticotroph, somatotroph, thyreotroph, gonadotroph)
Endocrine consequences of physical activity correlated with execise intensity
Endocrine and metabolic bases of training programs for diabetic patients: diversified approaches
Approach to sarcopenia in the elderly
Stress and exercise
Overtraining syndromes
Individual work

Didactic methods

The course is organized as follows:
•frontal lectures on all the course’s topics
•interactive discussion of practical problems
•individual work

Learning assessment procedures

The aim of the exam is to verify at which level the learning objectives previously described have been acquired, by an oral test lasting about 20 minutes with 3 questions, that will evaluate the acquired knowledge. In addition, the test will evaluate the capacity of connecting the acquired notions. To pass this test it is required to get at least 18 points out of 30.

Reference texts

Teacher’s handouts
Specific topics can be further developed in the following texts:
•Lenzi A., Lombardi G., Martino E., Trimarchi F., Endocrinologia e attività motorie, Elsevier Ed.
•Lenzi A., Dondero F., D'Armiento M., Guida allo studio dell'Endocrinologia, Società Editrice Universo
•M. Cappa, Endocrinologia dell’esercizio fisico, UTET