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Academic year
Didactic period
Primo Semestre

Training objectives

The Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology course aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledge and useful tools to prepare the student to recognize the composition, structure and biology of Viruses, Bacteria, Mycetes and Protozoa. The objective is to make the student acquire knowledge of pathogenic microorganisms and the associated diseases. Furthermore, it is proposed to provide the student with the knowledge and the fundamental concepts of the mechanisms by which these organisms can provoke diseases and the interactions between microorganisms and infected host. The aim is to make available the tolls for laboratory diagnosis of diseases sustained by microorganisms.
As for the parameters of:
At the end of the course the student will know:
- the main microbiological infectious agents responsible for pathology in humans
- the basics of microbial, mycotic and viral pathogenesis
- the interactions between microorganisms and host and the host's response to infections
- the basics of antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral therapy
- the main laboratory procedures for the study and correct identification of microorganisms and viruses and their sensitivity in vitro to antimicrobial and antiviral drugs.

At the end of the course the student:
- Will be able to orient himself in the field of bacterial, mycotic and viral pathology for systems and organs
-Will be able to indicate which laboratory assays are most appropriate for identifying pathogenic microorganisms
- Will know how to implement a rational approach aimed at diagnosing and treating infections.


Basic knowledge of biology, biochemistry and molecular biology

Course programme

BACTERIOLOGY: Composition and structure of bacteria. Metabolism. Spore. Cultivation. Genetic recombination. Bacterial pathogenesis. Toxins. Defenses of the organism. Serological reactions. Vaccines and serums. Chemotherapy and antibiotics. Bacteriological laboratory diagnostics. Staphylococci. Streptococci. Pneumococci. Neisserie. Corynebacterium. Enterobacteriaceae. Campylobacter and Helicobacter. Pseudomonas. Vibrio. Pasteurelle. Brucella. Emofili. Bordetella. Legionella. Bacilli. Anthrax. Clostridia. Mycobacteria. Borrelia. Leptospira. Treponemes. Mycoplasma. Rickettsia. Chlamydiae. Actinomycetes. Anaerobic bacteria.
VIROLOGY: Composition and structure of viruses. Classification. Viral replication. Cultivation and titration of viruses. Virus genetics. Viral pathogenesis. Viral oncogenesis. Antiviral defenses of the organism. Antiviral and interferon drugs. Virological laboratory diagnostics. Poxvirus. Herpesvirus. Adenovirus. Parvovirus. Polyomavirus. Papilloma virus. Reovirus. Paramyxovirus. Orthomyxovirus. Rhabdovirus. Togavirus. Picornavirus. Arbovirus. Coronavirus. Virus etiological agents of hepatitis. Retrovirus. AIDS. Emerging viral infections. Prions.
MYCOLOGY: Cytology and morphology, metabolism, sexual and asexual reproduction. Pathogenic action. Mycotoxins. Host immune response. Antifungal drugs. Cultivation of fungi. Principles of mycological diagnostics. Superficial mycoses: pityriasis. Skin mycoses: dermatophytes. Subcutaneous mycoses: sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, mycetomas. Systemic mycoses: histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis. Opportunistic mycoses: candidiasis, aspergillosis, zygomycosis, pneumocystis carinii.
PARASITOLOGY: General characters of protozoa. Amoebas. Hemoflagellates: leishmanias and trypanosomes. Intestinal and genitourinary flagellates: giardia, trichomonas. Plasmodium. Toxoplasma.
CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY: General information on the main morbid pictures, and on the diagnosis of diseases of microbial origin of the various systems.
Isolation procedures and methods and identification of the various pathogenic microbial agents associated with infections of the following districts: cutaneous, respiratory, urogenital, gastrointestinal, nervous and circulatory. Sepsis.
LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: Microscopy, immunoenzymatic techniques. Critical considerations on the interpretation and meaning of laboratory tests.

Didactic methods

The course includes lectures and online assisted teaching. The hours of online assisted teaching on the certified moodle platform consist of the deepening of some topics covered in class.

Learning assessment procedures

The learning verification will be carried out by means of a written exam lasting 90 minutes without the use of notes or books or multimedia media of their own, in the presence of teachers. 66 multiple choice questions (4 options per question) and related questions will be formulated to all the training objectives as defined above. Each correct answer will be evaluated 0.5 points, each wrong answer will remove 0.1 point. The score obtained will be rounded (down or down). Honors will be awarded to those who pass the rounded score of 30.

Reference texts

- Murray et al., Microbiologia Medica, VIII edizione, EDRA
- Sherris, Microbiologia Medica, VI edizione, EMSI
- Antonelli et al., Principi di Microbiologia Medica, III ed, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana