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HISTOLOGY AND ANATOMY I

Academic year and teacher
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Versione italiana
Academic year
2022/2023
Teacher
LUCA MARIA NERI
Credits
16
Didactic period
Primo Semestre

Training objectives

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Modulo: 013281 - ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA
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The Histology and Embryology module aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledges about organization and body distribution of tissues. Furthermore, the module aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledge about embryonic development and differentiation.




Knowledge and understanding:

At the end of the course the student will:
- know the main histological techniques.
- know the body distribution of tissues; to be able to correlate cellular activities and the structural and ultrastructural organization of cells and tissues with their main functional activities.
- acquire histological and embryological terminology as a basis for the critical interpretation of the morphological knowledge.
- know the events underlying the development processes: from cell proliferation, molecular induction processes and cell differentiation, morphogenesis.
- understand the main processes through which tissue organization takes place during embryonic development and differentiation.
- recall the main steps that lead to the development of the apparatus and the human organism.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to:
- demonstrate the ability of observation and identification of the tissues by the common techniques of microscopic observation.
- know the main clinical correlations deriving from morphogenetic and histogenetic developmental alterations.

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Modulo: 019553 - ANATOMIA UMANA I
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The Human Anatomy I aims to give to the student the knowledge of clinically oriented anatomy, in an overall view that includes organs and apparatuses and loco-regional relationships.

Knowledge and understanding:

At the end of the course the student will:
- recall the main steps that lead to the development of the apparatus and the human organism.
- know contents related to the regions of the splanchocranium, neck, thorax, spine-vertebral column, abdomen and bone pelvis will therefore be treated, with links to descriptive and systematic anatomy (shape, position, relationships), topographic (loco-regional) and clinical.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to:
- recognize, describe and analyze the organ or apparatus within the region in which it is located, and to analyze simple clinical cases oriented to anatomy.

Prerequisites

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Modulo: 013281 - ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA
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Basic knowledge of chemistry and biology




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Modulo: 019553 - ANATOMIA UMANA I
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Human Anatomy I module:
Specific prerequisites not needed.
Useful knowledge of basic notions of biology and histology.

Course programme

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Modulo: 013281 - ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA
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Methods and tools of investigation for the observation of cells, tissues.

Epithelial tissue. Characteristics and classification of lining epithelia. Membrane specializations. Intercellular junction systems. General properties of exocrine and endocrine glands. Exocrin glands classification.

Connective tissue. Molecular composition and functions of the extracellular matrix. Cell matrix adhesion. Basal membranes. Cellular component. Characteristics of connective tissues as such: mesenchyme, loose and dense fibrillar connective tissue, reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue. Characteristics of hyaline, fibrous and elastic cartilage. Histogenesis of cartilage. Characteristics of bone tissue: non-laminar and lamellar bone tissue. Ossification. Generalities and functions of blood and its components. Hematopoiesis.

Muscle tissue. Characteristics of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissue. Mechanisms of muscle contraction. Neuromuscular junctions.

Nervous tissue. Characteristics of nervous tissue, neurons and glial cells. Description of chemical and electrical synapses.

Embryology: Ovulation and spermatogenesis. Fertilization and implantation. Events of the first four weeks of embryonic development. Germinal disc formation. Development of the following apparatuses: digestive, cardiovascular, urinary, genital, integumentary, nervous, skeletal and muscular. Development of face structures.




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Modulo: 019553 - ANATOMIA UMANA I
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HUMAN ANATOMY I
The contents listed below do not pre-define a predetermined sequence, which may therefore be varied by the teachers during the semester according to the most appropriate methods for the students of the specific year of the course.

SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY

GENERALITIES: references planes and section. Anatomical position. Body regions and body cavity. Skeletal system: generality of bones and joints. Muscular system: generalities of muscles, tendons and aponeuroses.
SPINE: general and specific characteristics of the vertebrae. Joints and ligaments of the vertebra. Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Movements and curvatures of the vertebral column. Relationship with spinal cord and meninges.
CRANIUM: splanchnocranium.

CHEST: skeleton, joints, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles (thoracoappendicular muscles). Back muscles. Thoracic diaphragm and movements of the chest wall (mechanics of breathing).
PELVIS: pelvis bones, abdominal wall muscles.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: upper and lower tracts, lungs. Pleura.
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: heart and pericardium. Arterial system and venous system (pulmonary and systemic circulation). Aorta and its branches Inferior and superior vena cava. Azygos vein system.
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM: generality.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine. Liver, pancreas, gallbladder. Peritoneum, meso and oments.
URINARY SYSTEM: kidneys, renal lodge and contents, ureters, bladder, urethra. Adrenal glands.
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
Female: uterus, Fallopian tubes and ovaries; external genital organs.
Male: testis, epididymis, Vas deferens, spermatic cord, prostate and other accessory glands; external genital organs.
Pelvic floor and perineum (male and female).

TOPOGRAPHICAL ANATOMY CLASSES (WITH CLINICAL OVERVIEW)
Head and neck: nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, tonsils, oral cavity, chewing, swallowing. Bands (fascia), muscles, neck triangles. Cervical plexus, phrenic nerve, cervical sympathetic. Vessels and viscera of the neck.

Trunk: subdivisions and content of mediastinum. Cardiac and pulmonary plexus, chest sympathetic. Fetal circulation. Mammary gland, polimastia. Lymphatic chains and thoracic duct. Ossification of the vertebrae. Vertebral column vessels. Abdominal quadrants. Development of digestive tract, abdominal cavity organization and abdominal vascular planes. Vena cava anastomosis. Peritoneal recesses, spleen, retroperitoneal compartment. Varicocele. Portal vein circle and anastomosis with vena cava. Inguinal canal and contents.
Urinary and fecal continence.

Didactic methods

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Modulo: 013281 - ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA
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The module of Histology and Embryology provides frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in the insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons and indicated by the teacher at the beginning of the course. The teaching activity is also integrated by practical activity which consists of histological observations under an optical microscope provided to groups of students.



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Modulo: 019553 - ANATOMIA UMANA I
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The human Anatomy I module provides frontal lectures and on-line assisted teaching. The on-line teaching hours of moodle platform certification service consist in insights of some topics presented during the frontal lessons. Lectures, presentation of clinical cases using a problem solving method, practical exercises on anatomical models and on fresh and formalin-fixed anatomical pieces.

Learning assessment procedures

The learning verification will be carried out by a written exam, lasting 40 to 90 minutes, without the use of notes or books or personal multimedia support, in the presence of the teachers. The test will be formulated with multiple-choice questions (5 multiple-choice) relating to all the educational goals. No penalty for wrong answers or not given. The verification will also take into account the practical part. The verification of the knowledge of the Histology and Embryology module will require the identification of histological images as a necessary prerequisite to continue the test. To access the test the student will have to recognize at least two out of 3 images. The questions of Histology and Embryology module will be prepared in order to verify the knowledge acquired about tissue organization and about the main steps that lead to the development of tissues and apparatus of the human organism, also with the use of images. The questions of Anatomy I module, some of which including also images, will be prepared in order to verify the anatomical knowledge acquired by the student from a systematic and topographical point of view, in some cases even with simple clinical references treated in class, and wih the use of images.
For both modules, a minimum score of 18 out of 30 will be required to pass the exam. The maximum grade, equal to 30 cum laude, is obtained by those who, answering the questions correctly, will reach 95% of the maximum score; the minimum grade, equal to 18, is obtained by those who, answering the questions correctly, will reach 60% of the maximum score.
The questions may have the same weight or a different weight based on the complexity of the question and on the particular knowledge that is verified.
The final grade will derive from a weighted average of the Histology and Embryology and Anatomy I modules.

Reference texts

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Modulo: 013281 - ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA
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HISTOLOGY
Text book (1 choice):
Monesi, Istologia, Piccin Ed.
Maraldi and Tacchetti, Istologia Medica, Edi-Ermes.

Atlas (1 choice):
J.B. Kerr, Atlante di Istologia funzionale, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
Atlante di istologia. Con correlazioni funzionali e cliniche. Dongmei Cui. Piccin Ed.

EMBRYOLOGY
Barbieri M., Carinci P., Embriologia, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.




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Modulo: 019553 - ANATOMIA UMANA I
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HISTOLOGY
Text book (1 choice):
Monesi, Istologia, Piccin Ed.
Maraldi and Tacchetti, Istologia Medica, Edi-Ermes.

Atlas (1 choice):
J.B. Kerr, Atlante di Istologia funzionale, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
Atlante di istologia. Con correlazioni funzionali e cliniche. Dongmei Cui. Piccin Ed.

EMBRYOLOGY
Text book (1 choice):
De Felici et al., Embriologia Umana, Piccin Ed.
Barbieri M., Carinci P., Embriologia, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.

HUMAN ANATOMY I
Text book (1 choice):
Anastasi G. et al., Trattato di Anatomia Umana, Edi-Ermes.
Waschke J. et al., [Vitale M. (Curatore) et al.] Anatomia Umana, casa editrice EDRA
Standring S. et al., Anatomia del Gray, Casa Editrice EDRA.

Atlas (1 choice):
F.H. Netter, Atlante di Anatomia Umana, Casa Editrice EDRA.
Prometheus, Atlante di Anatomia, Casa Editrice Edises.
Anatomia Umana, Atlante, Anastasi, Gaudio, Tacchetti, Casa Editrice Edi-Ermes.