Salta ai contenuti. | Salta alla navigazione

Strumenti personali

BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Academic year and teacher
If you can't find the course description that you're looking for in the above list, please see the following instructions >>
Versione italiana
Academic year
2022/2023
Teacher
NICOLETTA BIANCHI
Credits
10
Didactic period
Primo Semestre

Training objectives

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 28122 - BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE
------------------------------------------------------------
The Biochemistry module will provide students with the basis to afford study and comprehension of chemistry and the structure of the constituents of living matter, of the transformation of biomolecules, and of the energy changes associated with them. Student know how to correctly use the terms of Biochemistry; know the biochemical basis of biological systems and processes; know the molecular basis of biological systems and processes; know the main metabolic pathways and their integrations; know the basic techniques for the study of proteins.

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47368 - BIOCHIMICA II
------------------------------------------------------------
The Biochemistry module will provide students with the basis to afford study and comprehension of chemistry and the structure of the constituents of living matter, of the transformation of biomolecules, and of the energy changes associated with them. Student know how to correctly use the terms of Biochemistry; know the biochemical basis of biological systems and processes; know the molecular basis of biological systems and processes; know the main metabolic pathways and their integrations; know the basic techniques for the study of proteins.

Prerequisites

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 28122 - BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE
------------------------------------------------------------
The students must have passed the exams in: Medical chemistry and Biochemisty 1.
Basic knowledge of biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, histology



------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47368 - BIOCHIMICA II
------------------------------------------------------------
The students must have passed the exams in: Medical chemistry and Biochemisty 1.
Basic knowledge of biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, histology


Course programme

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 28122 - BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE
------------------------------------------------------------
BIOENERGY: biological reactions, catabolism and anabolism. High energy compounds and ATP production mechanisms. Redox systems. Gradients across the membrane and transport mechanisms.
METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES: metabolism of glucose and other sugars; glucose transporters and glucose control systems, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glycogenosynthesis, pentose phosphate pathway; fate of pyruvate, synthesis of Acetyl-CoA: the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Cori cycle; Citric acid cycle. Oncometabolites: molecular basis of metabolic reprogramming of tumors (notes).
ELECTRON TRANSPORT AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORILATION: complexes of the respiratory chain; the mitochondrion: mitochondrial pathologies; ATP synthase, ATP and ADP transport. Shuttle systems. Thermogenin or uncoupling protein.
LIPID METABOLISM: intestinal transport and plasma lipid homeostasis. Mechanisms and biological significance of lipoprotein oxidation. Fatty acid oxidation. Ketone bodies. Biosynthesis of lipid and cholesterol (systems of genomic and non-genomic regulation); the LDL receptor. Pathologies associated with lipoprotein metabolism disorders (notes).
METABOLISM OF AMINO ACIDS: nitrogen metabolism; urea cycle and regulation; transamination; degradation and biosynthesis of amino acids and heme. Amino acid derivatives. Clinical significance (diagnostic and prognostic) of transaminases.
METABOLISM OF NUCLEOTIDES: purine and pyrimidine nucleotides: biosynthesis, degradation and regulation. Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides.
NUCLEIC ACIDS: DNA replication and repair, genetic recombination (notes); transcription and maturation of RNA. Gene expression control in eukaryotes and prokaryotes (notes). Non-coding RNAs and ribozymes (notes).
PROTEINS: mechanism and regulation of protein synthesis; protein degradation. Post-translational modifications. Molecular chaperons. Proteases. Immunoglobulins. The extracellular matrix. The coagulation cascade. Enzymatic methods used for diagnosis, enzyme deficiencies (notes). Abzymes.
METABOLISM INTEGRATION (CELLULAR AND TISSUE LEVELS): tissue-specific metabolism and metabolic interrelationships. Hormonal regulation. Mechanism of action of protein and steroid hormones. The meaning of the second messengers. Fasting-feeding cycle.


------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47368 - BIOCHIMICA II
------------------------------------------------------------
BIOENERGY: biological reactions, catabolism and anabolism. High energy compounds and ATP production mechanisms. Redox systems. Gradients across the membrane and transport mechanisms.
METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES: metabolism of glucose and other sugars; glucose transporters and glucose control systems, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glycogenosynthesis, pentose phosphate pathway; fate of pyruvate, synthesis of Acetyl-CoA: the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Cori cycle; Citric acid cycle. Oncometabolites: molecular basis of metabolic reprogramming of tumors (notes).
ELECTRON TRANSPORT AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORILATION: complexes of the respiratory chain; the mitochondrion: mitochondrial pathologies; ATP synthase, ATP and ADP transport. Shuttle systems. Thermogenin or uncoupling protein.
LIPID METABOLISM: intestinal transport and plasma lipid homeostasis. Mechanisms and biological significance of lipoprotein oxidation. Fatty acid oxidation. Ketone bodies. Biosynthesis of lipid and cholesterol (systems of genomic and non-genomic regulation); the LDL receptor. Pathologies associated with lipoprotein metabolism disorders (notes).
METABOLISM OF AMINO ACIDS: nitrogen metabolism; urea cycle and regulation; transamination; degradation and biosynthesis of amino acids and heme. Amino acid derivatives. Clinical significance (diagnostic and prognostic) of transaminases.
METABOLISM OF NUCLEOTIDES: purine and pyrimidine nucleotides: biosynthesis, degradation and regulation. Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides.
NUCLEIC ACIDS: DNA replication and repair, genetic recombination (notes); transcription and maturation of RNA. Gene expression control in eukaryotes and prokaryotes (notes). Non-coding RNAs and ribozymes (notes).
PROTEINS: mechanism and regulation of protein synthesis; protein degradation. Post-translational modifications. Molecular chaperons. Proteases. Immunoglobulins. The extracellular matrix. The coagulation cascade. Enzymatic methods used for diagnosis, enzyme deficiencies (notes). Abzymes.
METABOLISM INTEGRATION (CELLULAR AND TISSUE LEVELS): tissue-specific metabolism and metabolic interrelationships. Hormonal regulation. Mechanism of action of protein and steroid hormones. The meaning of the second messengers. Fasting-feeding cycle.

Didactic methods

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 28122 - BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE
------------------------------------------------------------
The course of 10 CFU (125 hours) includes 80 hours of lectures and online assisted teaching, while the hours of rest represent online assisted teaching provided with certified moodle platform consist of the deepening of some topics covered in class.



------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47368 - BIOCHIMICA II
------------------------------------------------------------
The course of 10 CFU (125 hours) includes 80 hours of lectures and online assisted teaching, while the hours of rest represent online assisted teaching provided with certified moodle platform consist of the deepening of some topics covered in class.


Learning assessment procedures

The assessment of the learning will be carried out by means of a written exam with 50 questions (with different score) lasting 60 min. The questions will be formulated with multiple-choice questions (5 options for each question) relating to all the training objectives defined above. There will be no penalty for incorrect or unsuccessful answers. The final score (expressed in thirtieths) will be agreed with the teachers involved and will take into account the weight in terms of CFU of each teacher. The teachers reserve the right to examine students' learning by oral examination. The duration of the whole test will be increased for students with "Specific Learning Disorder". The maximum grade, equal to 30 cum laude, is obtained by those who answers all questions correctly. The exam is passed with a score of 18/30 (rounded up).

Reference texts

------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 28122 - BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE
------------------------------------------------------------
"I principi di Biochimica di Lehninger" di Nelson-Cox, Zanichelli
"Fondamenti di Biochimica" di Voet-Voet-Pratt, Zanichelli
"Biochimica" di Mathews, Van Holde, Appling, Anthony-Cahill, Piccin
Schemes, videos provided by the teacher and scientific reports.
It won’t be possible to download the video lectures.


------------------------------------------------------------
Modulo: 47368 - BIOCHIMICA II
------------------------------------------------------------
"I principi di Biochimica di Lehninger" di Nelson-Cox, Zanichelli (eighth edition)
"Fondamenti di Biochimica" di Voet-Voet-Pratt, Zanichelli
"Biochimica" di Mathews, Van Holde, Appling, Anthony-Cahill, Piccin
Schemes, videos provided by the teacher and scientific reports.
It won’t be possible to download the video lectures.