# PHYSICS

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Versione italiana
2022/2023
Teacher
PAOLO LENISA
Credits
12
Didactic period
Secondo Semestre
SSD
FIS/01

#### Training objectives

The course aims to provide a basic introduction to the mechanics and thermodynamics.

As for the mechanics, after an in-depth presentation of vectors and vector systems, the course addresses the topics of kinematics and dynamics of a particle and then those of rigid body dynamics and moment of inertia. Finally first elements of statics applied to isostatic structures are introduced.

For the part of thermodynamics after a general introduction to the concepts of thermodynamic system, temperature, heat and energy exchange between the system and environment, the course exposes the first law of thermodynamics and its applications to a thermodynamic system like the ideal gas. It finally presents the second law of thermodynamics and its applications.

The main knowledge gained will be:
• Operations on vectors. Vector systems: resultant and resultant moment. Equivalent systems of applied vectors.
• Kinematics. Graphical representation of space-time, velocity-time, acceleration-time.
• Dynamics The problem of motion. Concept of force. Principles of dynamics. Free body diagram and force decomposition. Work and energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Momentum. Conservation of momentum. Angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum.
• Dynamics of particle systems and rigid body. Center of mass. Motion of the center of mass. First and second cardinal laws of dynamics for the systems of points. Definition and calculation of the moment of inertia of a rigid body. Statics of rigid bodies. Static equilibrium of a rigid body.
• Thermodynamics. Temperature concept and its measurement. Joule's experiments. Heat. First law of thermodynamics and internal energy. Thermodynamic transformations: work and heat. Calorimetry. Gas Laws. Equation of state for ideal gases. Transformations of an ideal gas. Internal energy of an ideal gas. Expressions of the second law of thermodynamics. Reversibility and irreversibility. Carnot's theorem. Entropy. Carnot engine. Heat pumps and refrigerators. Entropy.

The main skills (application of the knowledge acquired) will be:
• Solution of exercises with vectors and vector systems.
• Solution of exercises related to single particle dynamics and rigid body.
• Solution of isostatic structures.
• schematic and rational approach to real situations. Track of free body diagram and introduction of the equations of motion.
• Exercises related to application of the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

#### Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of mathematical analysis. Concepts of derivative and integral. Geometry

#### Course programme

The course includes 120 hours of teaching between lessons and exercises.

Vectors and vector systems (12 hours)
Measurement units and significant digits Vectors. Distinction between scalar and vector. Vector operations; scalar and vector product. Vector systems: resultant and resultant moment. Equivalent systems of applied vectors. Applied parallel vectors; center.

Kinematics (16 hours).
Definition of kinematic quantities; measurement units. Graphical representation of space space-time, velocity-time, acceleration time and relationships. Uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion. Motions in two dimensions: projectile motion, uniform circular motion, simple harmonic motion.

Dynamic of the material point (32 hours).
The problem of motion. Concept of force. Vector nature of forces. Principles of dynamics. Examples of forces: Gravitational, elastic, friction. The harmonic oscillator: simple, damped and forced. Resonance . Free body diagram and stress decomposition. Reaction forces. Work. Potential energy. Kinetic energy. Power. Conservative forces. Conservation of mechanical energy. Momentum. Conservation of momentum. Shock. Angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum.

Dynamics of systems of particles and rigid body (36 hours).
Systems of particles; center of mass. Motion of the center of mass. Internal and external forces. Cardinal Law of Dynamics of particle systems. Torque of internal and external forces. Second cardinal law of dynamics of systems of particles. Rigid body dynamics. Definition and calculation of the center of mass. The definition and calculation of the moment of inertia of a rigid body. Theorems of parallel axes (or Steiner) and orthogonal the moment of inertia. Rotational kinetic energy and Koenig's theorem for the kinetic energy. Definition of the main axes of rotation and principal moments of inertia. Work, energy and power in rotational motion of a rigid body. Conservation of angular momentum and applications: the gyroscope. Rolling resistance and rolling. Oscillatory motion of a rigid body: the physical pendulum and the pendulum compound. Harmonic motion damped and forced. Statics of rigid bodies. Static equilibrium of a rigid body. Constraints and support reactions for cases in two dimensions. Deformable systems, elasticity and tensile and shear. The Young's modulus.

Thermodynamics (24 hours).
First law of thermodynamics. Systems and thermodynamic states. Temperature concept and its measurement. Temperature scales. Adiabatic systems. Joule's experiments. Heat. First law of thermodynamics and internal energy. Thermodynamic transformations: work and heat. Calorimetry. Heat absorption by solids and liquids: specific heat, latent heat. Gas Laws. Equation of state for ideal gases. Transformations of a gas. Internal energy of an ideal gas. Second law of thermodynamics and entropy. Statements of the second law of thermodynamics. Reversibility and irreversibility. Carnot's theorem. Entropy. Carnot engine. Heat pumps and refrigerators. Calculations of entropy change.

#### Didactic methods

The course will consist in theorical lectures integrated by practical execises devoted to a better understanding and application of the various concepts.

#### Learning assessment procedures

The purpose of the examinations is to check the achievement of learning objectives exposed.
The examination is carried out in two ways:
• During the lesson time, in normal period, partial tests at the conclusion of each cycle of lectures on a single topic are performed. In particular the partial tests will be devoted to:
- vectors;
- kinematics:
- dynamics and statics of the material point;
- dynamics and statics of the rigidi body;
- thermodynamics.
The tests will include both exercises and theoretical questions. The overrun satisfactorily of all verification tests allows the overcoming direct examination.
• In the rest of the academic year and in the present period of COVID19 emergency, the exam consists of a written test containing exercises on the topics covered in the course, followed by an oral including also theoretical arguments.
The exercises will be focused on:
- vectors and system of vectors;
- kinematics;
- dynamics of the point of the rigidi body;
- statics of the rigid body;
- thermodynamics.

#### Reference texts

- Serway PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS - Ed. EDISES
- Halliday - Resnik - Walker PHYSICS I Vol. 1 Ed. Ambrosiana